Farmer designers, agriculture on the move

from 14 July 2021 to 17 January 2022

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Secateurs

Vine pruning

Until the late 19th century, the billhook was the only tool used for pruning vines. With a single or a double hook, with or without a sharp heel or a nose, its shape and size varied according to regions, customs and uses. It was replaced by secateurs whose shape gradually deviated from it.

In the 1950s, forged steel was replaced by machined aluminum, which significantly reduced the weight of the tool. Among the innovations, the Swiss company Felco proposed a model that allows the replacement of blade and counter-blade when they are worn, a micrometric adjustment, handles designed for the hand and a system of opening and closing with the thumb via a simple ratchet. 

In 1970, Felco developed the first pruning shears with a rotating handle, the Felco 3. The 45° rotation during cutting allows a better distribution of the muscular effort and significantly reduces the effort of pruning, thus preventing the risks of tendonitis and inflammation. Its very symbolic red anti-slip coating avoids direct contact with the metal in cold weather.

Technical research continued with the release of hydraulic and hydropneumatic pruning shears, which precede the invention, in 1984, of the first electric pruning shears Electrocoup designed by Daniel Delmas. It was to be a resounding success, making Infaco the world's leading manufacturer of electric pruning shears. Pellenc launched its first electric model the following year, the PE20.

The first lead batteries weighing several kilos were replaced in the 1990s and 2000s by lightweight batteries weighing a few hundred grams. Pellenc was the first company to offer Lithium-ion batteries for hand-held power tools (Lixion model, 2004).

sécateurs

     Schéma sécateurs
© madd-bordeaux

1. Billhook, 19th century, Salles-d’Angles, Musée des arts et traditions populaires Gaston Grégor
2. Sécateur taillandier, 19th century, Clion, Musée Artisanal et Rural
3. Sécateur taillandier, 19th century, origin Gironde, Musée d’Aquitaine, inv. 67.31.2
4. Serpe à croc avec talon tranchant, 19th century, origin Gironde, Musée d’Aquitaine, inv. 63.11.10
5. Serpe à croc avec dos tranchant, lame emmanchée à soie, second half of the 19th century, origin Gironde, Musée d’Aquitaine, inv. 73.3.1
6. Serpe à croc unique sans dos tranchant, 19th century, origin Gironde, Musée d’Aquitaine, inv. 97.42.6
7. Cisaille à rogner, 19th century, origin Gironde, Musée d’Aquitaine, inv. 78.24.42
8. Scie pliante, late 19th century, origin Gironde, Musée d’Aquitaine, inv. 85.7.5
9. Scie égoïne, 20th century, provenance Gironde, Musée d’Aquitaine, inv. 86.49.1
10. Sécateur à talon, early 20th century, Clion, Musée Artisanal et Rural
11. Sécateur à talon et serpette, late 19th century,Clion, Musée artisanal et rural
12. Sécateur modifié, early 20th century, Clion, Musée artisanal et rural
13. Sécateur à talon, late 19th century, origin Jonzac (Charente Maritime), musée d’Aquitaine, inv. 67.31.1
14. Sécateur à talon, late 19th century, Salles- d’Angles, Musée des arts et traditions populaires Gaston Grégor
15. Sécateur à talon et serpette, late 19th century, Salles-d’Angles, Musée des arts et traditions populaires Gaston Grégor
16. Sécateur à serpette, 20th century, steel, origin Le Taillan Médoc, musée d’Aquitaine, inv. 68.48.1
17. Sécateur à talon, early 20th century, Clion, Musée Artisanal et Rural
18. Sécateur ordinaire pour tailler, around 1950, Clion, Musée Artisanal et Rural
19. Serpe à rogner, servant à couper les extrémités des hauts sarments, 19th century, origin Gironde, musée d’Aquitaine, inv. 69.15.6
20. Serpe à croc unique, 19th century, origin Gironde, musée d’Aquitaine, inv. 66.22.1
21. Serpe à épamprer, early 20th century, Saint-Émilion, Château Cheval Blanc
22. Sécateur, first half of the early 20th century, Felco company
23. Sécateur rudimentaire, first half of the early 20th century, Felco company
24. Sécateur Felco 2, 1950, Felco company
25. Sécateur Felco 2, 1950, Felco company
26. Sécateur Felco 2, 75 years edition special, Felco company
27. Sécateur Felco 3 à poignée tournante, 1970, Felco company
28. Sécateur Electrocoup, 1984, Infaco compagny 
29. Sécateur Electrocoup F3005, 2004, Infaco compagny
30. Sécateur Electrocoup F3000, 1994, Infaco compagny
31. Sécateur Electrocoup F3015, 2016, Infaco compagny
32. Sécateur Lixion, 2004, Pellenc compagny
33. Sécateur P2000, 1994, Pellenc compagny
34. Sécateur Vinion, 2015, Pellenc compagny